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2021

Baatz, R., et al. (2021), Reanalysis in Earth System Science: Toward Terrestrial Ecosystem Reanalysis, Reviews of Geophysics, 59(3), e2020RG000715, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020RG000715 

Bagatinsky, V. A., and N. A. Diansky (2021), Variability of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation in Different Phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation from Ocean Objective Analyses and Reanalyses, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 57(2), 208-219, doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/S000143382102002X

Bagnell, A., and T. DeVries (2021), 20th century cooling of the deep ocean contributed to delayed acceleration of Earth’s energy imbalance, Nature Communications, 12(1), 4604, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24472-3

Barnoud, A., et al. (2021), Contributions of Altimetry and Argo to Non-Closure of the Global Mean Sea Level Budget Since 2016, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(14), e2021GL092824, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092824

Barton, N., et al. (2021), The Navy’s Earth System Prediction Capability: A New Global Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Sea Ice Prediction System Designed for Daily to Subseasonal Forecasting, Earth and Space Science, 8(4), e2020EA001199, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020EA001199

Bashmachnikov, I. L., A. M. Fedorov, P. A. Golubkin, A. V. Vesman, V. V. Selyuzhenok, N. V. Gnatiuk, L. P. Bobylev, K. I. Hodges, and D. S. Dukhovskoy (2021), Mechanisms of interannual variability of deep convection in the Greenland sea, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 174, 103557, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2021.103557

Belonenko, T. V., V. A. Zinchenko, A. M. Fedorov, M. V. Budyansky, S. V. Prants, and M. Y. Uleysky (2021), Interaction of the Lofoten Vortex with a Satellite Cyclone, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 178(1), 287-300, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-020-02647-1

Bisson, K. M., E. Boss, P. J. Werdell, A. Ibrahim, and M. J. Behrenfeld (2021), Particulate Backscattering in the Global Ocean: A Comparison of Independent Assessments, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(2), e2020GL090909, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090909

Boutin, J., et al. (2021), Satellite-Based Sea Surface Salinity Designed for Ocean and Climate Studies, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(11), e2021JC017676, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JC017676

Brown, P. J., et al. (2021), Circulation-driven variability of Atlantic anthropogenic carbon transports and uptake, Nat. Geosci., 14(8), 571-577, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00774-5

Camus, L., et al. (2021), Autonomous Surface and Underwater Vehicles as Effective Ecosystem Monitoring and Research Platforms in the Arctic—The Glider Project, Sensors, 21(20), doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206752

Chen, X., G. Chen, L. Ge, B. Huang, and C. Cao (2021), Global Oceanic Eddy Identification: A Deep Learning Method From Argo Profiles and Altimetry Data, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8(412), doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.646926

Cheng, L., et al. (2021), Upper Ocean Temperatures Hit Record High in 2020, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 38(4), 523-530, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-021-0447-x

Cornec, M., H. Claustre, A. Mignot, L. Guidi, L. Lacour, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, B. Gentili, and C. Schmechtig (2021), Deep Chlorophyll Maxima in the Global Ocean: Occurrences, Drivers and Characteristics, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle, 35(4), e2020GB006759, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GB006759

Cornec, M., R. Laxenaire, S. Speich, and H. Claustre (2021), Impact of Mesoscale Eddies on Deep Chlorophyll Maxima, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(15), e2021GL093470, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093470

Denvil-Sommer, A., M. Gehlen, and M. Vrac (2021), Observation system simulation experiments in the Atlantic Ocean for enhanced surface ocean pCO2 reconstructions, Ocean Sci., 17(4), 1011-1030, doi: https://os.copernicus.org/articles/17/1011/2021/

Desbruyères, D., L. Chafik, and G. Maze (2021), A shift in the ocean circulation has warmed the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean since 2016, Communications Earth & Environment, 2(1), 48, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00120-y

Devana, M. S., W. E. Johns, A. Houk, and S. Zou (2021), Rapid Freshening of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water Driven by Entrainment of a Major Upper Ocean Salinity Anomaly, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(22), e2021GL094396, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094396

Dong, B., K. Haines, and M. Martin (2021), Improved High Resolution Ocean Reanalyses Using a Simple Smoother Algorithm, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(12), e2021MS002626, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021MS002626

Eden, C., D. Olbers, and T. Eriksen (2021), A Closure for Lee Wave Drag on the Large-Scale Ocean Circulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51(12), 3573-3588, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-20-0230.1

Fedorov, A. M., M. V. Budyansky, T. V. Belonenko, S. V. Prants, M. Y. Uleysky, and I. L. Bashmachnikov (2021), Lagrangian modeling of water circulation in the Lofoten Basin, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 96, 101258, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2021.101258

Fedorov, A. M., R. P. Raj, T. V. Belonenko, E. V. Novoselova, I. L. Bashmachnikov, J. A. Johannessen, and L. H. Pettersson (2021), Extreme Convective Events in the Lofoten Basin, Pure and Applied Geophysics, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-021-02749-4

Ford, D. (2021), Assimilating synthetic Biogeochemical-Argo and ocean colour observations into a global ocean model to inform observing system design, Biogeosciences, 18(2), 509-534, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-509-2021

Gibert, F., et al. (2021), Results of the Dragon 4 Project on New Ocean Remote Sensing Data for Operational Applications, Remote Sensing, 13(14), doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13142847

Gloege, L., et al. (2021), Quantifying Errors in Observationally Based Estimates of Ocean Carbon Sink Variability, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle, 35(4), e2020GB006788, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GB006788

Grabon, J. S., J. M. Toole, A. T. Nguyen, and R. A. Krishfield (2021), An analysis of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean using the Arctic subpolar gyre state estimate and observations, Prog. Oceanogr., 198, 102685, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2021.102685

Guimbard, S., et al. (2021), The Salinity Pilot-Mission Exploitation Platform (Pi-MEP): A Hub for Validation and Exploitation of Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Data, Remote Sensing, 13(22), 4600, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13224600

Hakuba, M. Z., T. Frederikse, and F. W. Landerer (2021), Earth’s Energy Imbalance From the Ocean Perspective (2005–2019), Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(16), e2021GL093624, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093624

Hátún, H., L. Chafik, and K. M. H. Larsen (2021), The Norwegian Sea Gyre – A Regulator of Iceland-Scotland Ridge Exchanges, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8(1001), doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.694614

Huang, B., C. Liu, V. Banzon, E. Freeman, G. Graham, B. Hankins, T. Smith, and H.-M. Zhang (2021), Improvements of the daily optimum interpolation sea surface temperature (DOISST) version 2.1, J. Clim., 34(8), 2923-2939, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0166.1

Huang, B., C. Liu, E. Freeman, G. Graham, T. Smith, and H.-M. Zhang (2021), Assessment and Intercomparison of NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) Version 2.1, J. Clim., 34(18), 7421-7441, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0001.1

Jemai, A., J. Wollschläger, D. Voß, and O. Zielinski (2021), Radiometry on Argo Floats: From the Multispectral State-of-the-Art on the Step to Hyperspectral Technology, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8(945), doi: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2021.676537

Jeon, T. (2021), Impact of Ocean Domain Definition on Sea Level Budget, Remote Sensing, 13(16), doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13163206

Jeon, T., K.-W. Seo, B.-H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J. Chen, and C. R. Wilson (2021), Sea level fingerprints and regional sea level change, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 567, 116985, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2021.116985

Johnson, G. C., et al. (2021), Global Oceans, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 102(8), S143-S198, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0083.1

Johnson, G. C., J. Lyman, T. Boyer, L. Cheng, J. Gilson, M. Ishii, R. Killick, and S. Purkey (2021), Ocean heat content in Global Oceans in the State of the Climate in 2020, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 102(8), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0083.1

Johnson, G. C., J. Reagan, J. Lyman, T. Boyer, C. Schmid, and R. Locarnini (2021), Salinity in Global Oceans in the State of the Climate in 2020, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 102(8), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0083.1

Johnson, K. S., and M. B. Bif (2021), Constraint on net primary productivity of the global ocean by Argo oxygen measurements, Nat. Geosci., 14(10), 769-774, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00807-z

Kawai, Y., and S. Hosoda (2021), Global mapping of 10-day differences of temperature and salinity in the intermediate layer observed with Argo floats, J. Oceanogr., doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-021-00613-6

Kawai, Y., S. Hosoda, K. Uehara, and T. Suga (2021), Heat and salinity transport between the permanent pycnocline and the mixed layer due to the obduction process evaluated from a gridded Argo dataset, J. Oceanogr., 77(1), 75-92, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-020-00559-1

Kenigson, J. S., and M.-L. Timmermans (2021), Nordic Seas Hydrography in the Context of Arctic and North Atlantic Ocean Dynamics, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51(1), 101-114, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-20-0071.1

Kitsios, V., P. Sandery, T. J. O’Kane, and R. Fiedler (2021), Ensemble Kalman Filter Parameter Estimation of Ocean Optical Properties for Reduced Biases in a Coupled General Circulation Model, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(2), e2020MS002252, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020MS002252

Kolodziejczyk, N., M. Hamon, J. Boutin, J.-L. Vergely, G. Reverdin, A. Supply, and N. Reul (2021), Objective Analysis of SMOS and SMAP Sea Surface Salinity to Reduce Large-Scale and Time-Dependent Biases from Low to High Latitudes, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 38(3), 405-421, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-20-0093.1

Le Bras, I., F. Straneo, M. Muilwijk, L. H. Smedsrud, F. Li, M. S. Lozier, and N. P. Holliday (2021), How Much Arctic Fresh Water Participates in the Subpolar Overturning Circulation?, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51(3), 955-973, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-20-0240.1

Li, N., S. Wang, L. Guan, and M. Liu (2021), Assessment of Global FY-3C/VIRR Sea Surface Temperature, Remote Sensing, 13(16), doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13163249

Li, Y., W. Sun, J. Zhang, J. Meng, and Y. Zhao (2021), Reconstruction of arctic SST data and generation of multi-source satellite fusion products with high temporal and spatial resolutions, Remote Sensing Letters, 12(7), 695-703, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/2150704X.2021.1931531

Liang, X., C. Liu, R. M. Ponte, and D. P. Chambers (2021), A Comparison of the Variability and Changes in Global Ocean Heat Content from Multiple Objective Analysis Products during the Argo Period, J. Clim., 34(19), 7875-7895, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0794.1

Liu, L., J. Wen, Z. Zheng, and H. Su (2021), An improved approach for mining association rules in parallel using Spark Streaming, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 49(4), 1028-1039, doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/cta.2935

Loeb, N. G., G. C. Johnson, T. J. Thorsen, J. M. Lyman, F. G. Rose, and S. Kato (2021), Satellite and Ocean Data Reveal Marked Increase in Earth’s Heating Rate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(13), e2021GL093047, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093047

Lu, X., et al. (2021), New Ocean Subsurface Optical Properties From Space Lidars: CALIOP/CALIPSO and ATLAS/ICESat-2, Earth and Space Science, 8(10), e2021EA001839, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021EA001839

Ludwigsen, C. A., and O. B. Andersen (2021), Contributions to Arctic sea level from 2003 to 2015, Advances in Space Research, 68(2), 703-710, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2019.12.027

Lyu, K., X. Zhang, and J. A. Church (2021), Projected ocean warming constrained by the ocean observational record, Nature Climate Change, 11(10), 834-839, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-021-01151-1

Meccia, V. L., D. Iovino, and A. Bellucci (2021), North Atlantic gyre circulation in PRIMAVERA models, Climate Dynamics, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-021-05686-z

Mulet, S., et al. (2021), The new CNES-CLS18 global mean dynamic topography, Ocean Sci., 17(3), 789-808, doi: https://os.copernicus.org/articles/17/789/2021/

Nguyen, A. T., H. Pillar, V. Ocaña, A. Bigdeli, T. A. Smith, and P. Heimbach (2021), The Arctic Subpolar Gyre sTate Estimate: Description and Assessment of a Data-Constrained, Dynamically Consistent Ocean-Sea Ice Estimate for 2002–2017, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(5), e2020MS002398, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020MS002398

Ni, Q., X. Zhai, X. Jiang, and D. Chen (2021), Abundant Cold Anticyclonic Eddies and Warm Cyclonic Eddies in the Global Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51(9), 2793-2806, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-21-0010.1

O’Kane, T. J., P. A. Sandery, V. Kitsios, P. Sakov, M. A. Chamberlain, D. T. Squire, M. A. Collier, C. C. Chapman, R. Fiedler, and D. Harries (2021), CAFE60v1: A 60-year large ensemble climate reanalysis. Part II: Evaluation, J. Clim., 34(13), 5171-5194, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0974.1

O’Kane, T. J., P. A. Sandery, V. Kitsios, P. Sakov, M. A. Chamberlain, D. T. Squire, M. A. Collier, C. C. Chapman, R. Fiedler, and D. Harries (2021), CAFE60v1: A 60-year large ensemble climate reanalysis. Part II: Evaluation, J. Clim., 34(13), 5171-5194, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0518.1

Oke, P. R., M. A. Chamberlain, R. A. S. Fiedler, H. Bastos de Oliveira, H. M. Beggs, and G. B. Brassington (2021), Combining Argo and Satellite Data Using Model-Derived Covariances: Blue Maps, Frontiers in Earth Science, 9(485), doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2021.696985

Olmedo, E., C. González-Haro, N. Hoareau, M. Umbert, V. González-Gambau, J. Martínez, C. Gabarró, and A. Turiel (2021), Nine years of SMOS sea surface salinity global maps at the Barcelona Expert Center, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13(2), 857-888, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-13-857-2021

Patrizio, C. R., and D. W. J. Thompson (2021), Quantifying the Role of Ocean Dynamics in Ocean Mixed Layer Temperature Variability, J. Clim., 34(7), 2567-2589, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0476.1

Ponte, R. M., Q. Sun, C. Liu, and X. Liang (2021), How Salty Is the Global Ocean: Weighing It All or Tasting It a Sip at a Time?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(11), e2021GL092935, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092935

Pryamitsyn, V., B. Petrenko, A. Ignatov, and Y. Kihai (2021), Metop First Generation AVHRR FRAC SST Reanalysis Version 1, Remote Sensing, 13(20), doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13204046

Rousselet, L., P. Cessi, and G. Forget (2021), Coupling of the mid-depth and abyssal components of the global overturning circulation according to a state estimate, Science Advances, 7(21), eabf5478, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf5478

Sallée, J.-B., V. Pellichero, C. Akhoudas, E. Pauthenet, L. Vignes, S. Schmidtko, A. N. Garabato, P. Sutherland, and M. Kuusela (2021), Summertime increases in upper-ocean stratification and mixed-layer depth, Nature, 591(7851), 592-598, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03303-x

Schindelegger, M., A. A. Harker, R. M. Ponte, H. Dobslaw, and D. A. Salstein (2021), Convergence of Daily GRACE Solutions and Models of Submonthly Ocean Bottom Pressure Variability, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(2), e2020JC017031, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC017031

Sohail, T., D. B. Irving, J. D. Zika, R. M. Holmes, and J. A. Church (2021), Fifty Year Trends in Global Ocean Heat Content Traced to Surface Heat Fluxes in the Sub-Polar Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(8), e2020GL091439, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL091439

Stammer, D., M. S. Martins, J. Köhler, and A. Köhl (2021), How well do we know ocean salinity and its changes?, Prog. Oceanogr., 190, 102478, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2020.102478

Su, H., T. Qin, A. Wang, and W. Lu (2021), Reconstructing Ocean Heat Content for Revisiting Global Ocean Warming from Remote Sensing Perspectives, Remote Sensing, 13(19), doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13193799

Su, H., A. Wang, T. Zhang, T. Qin, X. Du, and X.-H. Yan (2021), Super-resolution of subsurface temperature field from remote sensing observations based on machine learning, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 102, 102440, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2021.102440

Su, H., T. Zhang, M. Lin, W. Lu, and X.-H. Yan (2021), Predicting subsurface thermohaline structure from remote sensing data based on long short-term memory neural networks, Remote Sens. Environ., 260, 112465, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2021.112465

Thompson, P. R., et al. (2021), Sea level variability and change in Global Oceans, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 102(8), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0083.1

Toyoda, T., N. Kimura, L. S. Urakawa, H. Tsujino, H. Nakano, K. Sakamoto, G. Yamanaka, K. K. Komatsu, Y. Matsumura, and Y. Kawaguchi (2021), Improved representation of Arctic sea ice velocity field in ocean–sea ice models based on satellite observations, Climate Dynamics, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-021-05843-4

Trewin, B., A. Cazenave, S. Howell, M. Huss, K. Isensee, M. D. Palmer, O. Tarasova, and A. Vermeulen (2021), Headline Indicators for Global Climate Monitoring, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 102(1), E20-E37, doi: https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/bams/102/1/BAMS-D-19-0196.1.xml

van der Boog, C. G., H. A. Dijkstra, J. D. Pietrzak, and C. A. Katsman (2021), Double-diffusive mixing makes a small contribution to the global ocean circulation, Communications Earth & Environment, 2(1), 46, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00113-x

van der Boog, C. G., J. O. Koetsier, H. A. Dijkstra, J. D. Pietrzak, and C. A. Katsman (2021), Global dataset of thermohaline staircases obtained from Argo floats and Ice-Tethered Profilers, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13(1), 43-61, doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-13-43-2021

Verezemskaya, P., B. Barnier, S. K. Gulev, S. Gladyshev, J.-M. Molines, V. Gladyshev, J.-M. Lellouche, and A. Gavrikov (2021), Assessing Eddying (1/12°) Ocean Reanalysis GLORYS12 Using the 14-yr Instrumental Record From 59.5°N Section in the Atlantic, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(6), e2020JC016317, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC016317

Volkov, D., et al. (2021), Meridional overturning circulation and heat transport in the Atlantic Ocean in Global Oceans in the State of the Climate in 2020, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 102(8), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0083.1

von Schuckmann, K., et al. (2021), Copernicus Marine Service Ocean State Report, Issue 5, J. Oper. Oceanogr., 14(sup1), 1-185, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755876X.2021.1946240

Vose, R. S., B. Huang, X. Yin, D. Arndt, D. R. Easterling, J. H. Lawrimore, M. J. Menne, A. Sanchez-Lugo, and H. M. Zhang (2021), Implementing Full Spatial Coverage in NOAA’s Global Temperature Analysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(4), e2020GL090873, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090873

Wang, F., Y. Shen, Q. Chen, and Y. Sun (2021), Reduced misclosure of global sea-level budget with updated Tongji-Grace2018 solution, Scientific Reports, 11(1), 17667, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96880-w

Wang, X., J. Zhao, T. Hattermann, L. Lin, and P. Chen (2021), Transports and Accumulations of Greenland Sea Intermediate Waters in the Norwegian Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(4), e2020JC016582, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC016582

Xing, X., and E. Boss (2021), Chlorophyll-Based Model to Estimate Underwater Photosynthetically Available Radiation for Modeling, In-Situ, and Remote-Sensing Applications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(7), e2020GL092189, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092189

Yajnik, K. S., and C. K. Devasana (2021), Changing variability of sea surface temperature in the post-WWII era, Journal of Earth System Science, 130(3), 144, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-021-01637-8

Yang, C., F. E. Leonelli, S. Marullo, V. Artale, H. Beggs, B. B. Nardelli, T. M. Chin, V. De Toma, S. Good, and B. Huang (2021), Sea Surface Temperature Intercomparison in the Framework of the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S), J. Clim., 34(13), 5257-5283, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0793.1

Yuan, M., Z. Song, Z. Li, Z. Jing, P. Chang, B. Sun, H. Wang, X. Liu, S. Zhou, and L. Wu (2021), An Improved Parameterization of Wind-Driven Turbulent Vertical Mixing Based on an Eddy-Resolving Climate Model, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(10), e2021MS002630, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021MS002630

Zhang, B., F. Li, G. Zheng, Y. Wang, Z. Tan, and X. Li (2021), Developing big ocean system in support of Sustainable Development Goals: challenges and countermeasures, Big Earth Data, 5(4), 557-575, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/20964471.2021.1965371

Zhang, H., and A. Ignatov (2021), A Completeness and Complementarity Analysis of the Data Sources in the NOAA In Situ Sea Surface Temperature Quality Monitor (iQuam) System, Remote Sensing, 13(18), doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13183741

Zhang, H., A. Ignatov, and D. Hinshaw (2021), Evaluation of the In Situ Sea Surface Temperature Quality Control in the NOAA In Situ SST Quality Monitor (i Quam) System, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 38(7), 1249-1263, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-20-0203.1

Zhang, R., and M. Thomas (2021), Horizontal circulation across density surfaces contributes substantially to the long-term mean northern Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Communications Earth & Environment, 2(1), 112, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00182-y

Zhao, D., Y. Xu, X. Zhang, and C. Huang (2021), Global chlorophyll distribution induced by mesoscale eddies, Remote Sens. Environ., 254, 112245, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.112245

Zhou, W., J. Li, F. Xu, Y. Shu, and Y. Feng (2021), The impact of ocean data assimilation on seasonal predictions based on the National Climate Center climate system model, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 40(5), 58-70, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-021-1732-3

Zika, J. D., J. M. Gregory, E. L. McDonagh, A. Marzocchi, and L. Clement (2021), Recent water mass changes reveal mechanisms of ocean warming, J. Clim., 34(9), 3461-3479, doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0355.1